Historical Video Sketches

Introduction to the Historical Sketches Series
Scroll to the end of this Introduction to locate the links to the various episodes. Or watch this 3-minute introductory video “Channel Trailer”

“Historical Sketches” are produced in the Studios of TVCTV, Beaverton, Oregon and re-broadcast through the Portland Area and in various other States in the Nation.
According to Italian philosopher and historian Benedetto Croce, all history is “contemporary history”. That is, history consists essentially in seeing the past through the eyes of the present and in the light of its problems. Therefore the main work of the historian is not to record but to evaluate. This collection of video-historical sketches is not that ambitious. The objective is to cast light on some less-known history adding, when possible, anecdotes or curious events and coincidences. Keeping in mind that often, when looked at in detail, history reads almost like a novel. Nor we can omit what Shakespeare says of Nestor, “Instructed by the antiquary times,/ He must, he is, he cannot be but wise.” (Troilus and Cressida, act 2, sc. 3)
And…. although a little knowledge is a dangerous things, complete ignorance is not necessarily safer.


88-I “Il Fondo del Barile”
Ridicola propaganda definisce ‘servo di Putin’ chi non crede alle pop-fandonie sul conflitto Ukraino. Il video espone fatti storici-critici sull’Europa e gli USA. Aiutando cosi’ a identificare chi e’ il servo e perche’.

88-E “Who is the stooge of whom?”|
Laughable propaganda calls ‘Putin’s stooges’ those who don’t believe in current lies. This video reviews known & curious unknown historical yet critical facts concerning US & Europe – helping to spot who is the stooge of whom and why

87-E Tale of Two Cultures (America and Russia)
An attempt at an analysis of the cultural/historical reasons for America’s bellicosity towards Russia.

87-I Racconto di Due Culture America e Russia
Perche’ l’ovvio odio contro la Russia da una ‘certa’ America? Il video ne esplora le ragioni storiche alla radice

Episode 86-I Declino dell’Occidente
Declino dell’Occidente. Analisi e analogie tra il declino dell’impero romano e le vicende piu’ significative che collegano gli avvenimenti critici, a partire dalla Rivoluzione Francese, con le attuali dinamiche storico-politiche dell’Europa.

Episode 86-E Decline and Fall of the Western World
In 6 hefty volumes Gibbon described the events and the reasons leading to the fall of the Roman Empire. No intent here to emulate the feat, but an attempt to single out noteworthy events & episodes contributing to the current historical moment. Including
why 1968 was the first color revolution, who was behind it and why (in France) DeGaulle had to go. How the European Union was an external operation, and a 1968 the first color revolution. Why the currencies of half of Europe lost 2/3 of their real value with the establishment of the Euro – emulating the fate of the East German mark after the re-unification. When overnight the East German mark was made to have the same value as the West German mark, making all East German goods 3-times more expensive overnight

Episode 85-I Il Dilemma di Gorbachev
Spesso la storia e’ ingrata e preferisce slogans all’obiettivita’. L’indagine puo’ modificare certe opinioni. Il video ricostruisce Gorbachev nel contesto del paese, momento, storia, carattere e fatti omessi ma importanti

Episode 85-E Goodbye Gorbachev
Highlights from M. Gorbachev’s life & some clarifications on the murky events surrounding his forced resignation in 1991, and the consequent decade of misery in Russia. Mixed with my personal experiences, first in Ukraine as a young country&western singing guitarist, and later in Moscow as a Marketing Manager for a US Electronic Instrumentation Manufacturer. … And, at the end, the discovery that Gorbachev had actually a good country&western singing voice – when he sang “Old Letters” in London, in honor of his beloved and departed wife Raisa.
Music: Mikhail Gorbachev and Guitar – The old letters (Михаил Горбачев – Старые)

Episode 84-E Democracy in America
Democracy in America is a large book known to many only by its title and inference of meaning. The video explores the surprising disillusioning essence of its content, including curious anecdotes of life in America and Europe during the turbulent 1830s

Episode 82-I Il Mondo alla Rovescia
Italian Version

“Il mondo alla rovescia” è cio’ che oggi si definirebbe un ‘meme’, un’idea con radici nella cultura popolare. Gli storici hanno scritto abbondantemente sulla storia e lo sviluppo delle relative tematiche. Il corrente episodio di “Shakespeare nel Salotto” ne ripercorre brevemente la storia, fino a recenti relativi sviluppi. Con l’annuncio di un nuovo, ennesimo, straordinario dipartimento del Homeland Security (USA), dotato di poteri ampi ma indefiniti, come da annuncio del ‘presidente’ del nuovo “Dipartimento per la Identificazione della Disinformazione.” (sic) Il video include un ‘karaoke’, eseguito dal ‘primo ministro’ (a) nominata del nuovo dipartimento. La stessa donna secondo la quale il portatile infernale (laptop from hell) del figlio di Biden era un’invenzione russa. Informazione poi usata da Biden in dibattito elettorale, (segmento incluso) dove afferma che “50 agenti dell’FBI (piu’ altre ‘autorità’) hanno concluso che il portatile di Hunter Biden era una frode russa.

Infine il video include una traccia storica per cominciare a capire la completa dicotomia tra il senso comune e il nonsenso politico del corrente mondo occidentale, di cui il mitico cittadino medio vede gli effetti ma e’ ben schermato dalle cause.


Episode 82-E The World Upside Down
English Version
“The World Upside Down” is what today would be defined a ‘meme,’ an idea with roots in popular culture. Historians have written extensively about the development of the ‘meme’. This episode of ‘Historical Sketches’ traces a related brief history, up to our days with the announcement of an extraordinary new department of Homeland Security (US) with broad and undefined powers, other than those announced by the ‘president’ of this new “Department of Disinformation Identification’ Also included in the video a ‘karaoki’ performed by the appointed prime minister of the new department. The same woman who said that the ‘burning’ laptop of Biden’s son was a Russian invention. Along with a clip of a debate Biden-Trump, in which Biden states that “50 FBI agents’ concluded that Hunter Biden’s laptop was a Russian fraud.”

Episode 81-I  “Putin, Macron, Biden”
Italian  Version
Esaminando le tre vite di tre presidenti, stile-Plutarco modernizzato. Vale a dire, come le opinioni della stampa francese su Putin siano state modificate e aggiornate in base al vento politico del momento. Include una traduzione letterale delle meditazioni di Macron sulla primavera, date al popolo francese e al mondo in generale, per la salute simultanea del corpo e della mente. Infine la riproduzione della diretta di un intervento TELEVISIVO di Biden, in cui gli spettatori sono sfidati a capire cosa sta dicendo e di cosa sta parlando.

Episode 81-E  “Putin, Macron, Biden”
English Version
Examining the three lives of three presidents, partially in the style of Plutarch, brought up to date. Namely, how the French press’ views of Putin have been modified and updated according to the political wind of the moment. Follows a verbatim rendition of Macron’s meditations on Spring, given to the French people and the world at large, for the simultaneous health of body and mind. Finally a live rendition of a Biden’s live TV intervention, in which viewers are challenged to understand what he is talking about.

Episode 80-E  “The Curious History of American Exceptionalism”
English Version
There is a history behind every word and American ‘exceptionalism’ is no exception. The video attempts traces the idea and the practice of exceptionalism to its origin, to the ambition of the founders of the republic, to its expression even in the symbols on the dollar bill and to the not-so-craftily-hidden and not always successful American efforts to annex nations, openly or obscurely.

Episode 80-I  “La Curiosa Storia dell’Eccezionalismo Americano”
Italian Version
Ogni parola ha una storia e l ‘ “eccezionalismo” americano non fa eccezione. Il video riconduce l’idea e la pratica dell’eccezionalismo alla sua origine, all’ambizione dei fondatori della repubblica, alla sua espressione anche nei simboli sulla banconota del dollaro, e agli sforzi americani non-così-astutamente-nascosti e non sempre riusciti di annettere nazioni, apertamente o in practica non dichiarata.

Episode #79-E “Ukraine and the Fumes of Reason”
English Version
The video connects the main dots of Ukrainian history, from the origin of Russia (Kievan Rus) in Ukraine up to now, including the main players and events, and a short ‘live’ video-in-video featuring the utterings of an incredibly arrogant Biden, worth more than 1000 speeches

Episode #79-I “Ucraina e i Fumi della Ragione”
Italian Version

I recenti drammatici e funesti eventi in Ukraina dimostrano la verita’ della generalizzazione di Dante per cui “l’articular del cerebro (non) è perfetto…” (PUR XXV) – riferendomi in particolare a quelli che per 8 anni hanno bombardato l’Est del paese causando circa 14000 morti. E che pensavano cha la mattanza potesse continuare sine die senza conseguenze.

Episode #78-E Revolutions Then and Now
English Version

A brief analysis and comparison among the French, the Soviet and the current revolution leading to the Great Reset. Where one common trait is the allurement and promise of a sexual revolution. In the most current version, the notion that sexual orientation and characteristics are an option. Along with some topic historical details that may lead viewers to somewhat modify their ideas, notions, perceptions and opinions on whether revolutions – looked at a bit more closely – may represent more of a threat than a promise.

Episode 78-I Rivoluzioni Ieri e Oggi
Italian Version

Una breve analisi e confronto tra le rivoluzioni francese, sovietica e quella attuale nota come “The Great Reset”.Dove un tratto comune (specialmente nelle rivoluzioni francese e sovietica, ma anche nella presente) era l’allettamento e la promessa di una rivoluzione sessuale. Nella versione rivoluzionaria più recente abbiamo la nozione che l’orientamento e le caratteristiche sessuali sono ‘optional’. Il video contiene altresì alcuni dettagli storici poco noti sulle rivoluzioni in questione. Tali da poter forse condurre i video-spettatori a modificare in qualche modo le loro idee, nozioni, percezioni e opinioni sull’argomento. Considerando che – viste un piu’ più da vicino – certe rivoluzioni possono rappresentare più una minaccia che una promessa – considerato ed esaminato il preludio pandemico al ‘Gran Reset’.

Episode 77-E  Kazakhstan, Soft Power and Arabian Tales
English Version
An occasion to recall personal experiences in the area, including impressions, historical comparisons and signals from Kazakhstan (last year) that, in the view of this producer, did not portend well for the country. Signals that seemed to portend and conform to the pattern of what took place in Kazakhstan and elsewhere. Plus links between local art & architecture.

Episode 77-I Kazakhstan, ‘Soft Power’, Fiabe Arabe e Ricordi Personali
Versione Italiana
“I miei ricordi” ancora ina volta, non di Massimo D’Azeglio, ma personali sulle mie esperienze lavorative in Russia e nel Medio Oriente. Breve discussione sulla ‘SOFT POWER’, l’arma piu’ potente nel fodero del global neo-liberismo. Arma utilizzata, tra l’altro, anche in Kazakhstan negli ultimi anni, fino al recente colpo di stato, per fortuna fallito ma per un pelo – il tutto riportato da fonti dirette e inoppugnabili.

Episode #76-E Remembrance of Things Past, Germany & Russia
English Version
An attempt at redressing the scale of history of Germany and Russia, with respect to their most notorious modern dictators. Including some amusing anecdotes about Stalin and my impression on my visits to the USSR ‘when I was young’

Episode #76-I Italian.  Germania, Russia, Confronti Storici e Ricordi Personali
Versione Italiana
Alcuni ricordi (miei non di Massimo D’Azeglio) con riflessioni storiche un po’ controcorrente, nonché autobiografiche sulle mie impressioni giovanili durante visite all’ USSR, osservazioni sulla Portland di oggi e sul momento storico negli USA, piu’ qualche aneddoto e analogie non ben nascoste tra regimi nominalmente differenti.

Episode #75e (English) – The Road to Damascus, episode 2. English version
Second and last episode, documenting ‘deadly medicines’ and their connection with organized crime – all based on documents and data beyond any and all suspicion. Along with a brief analysis on the mechanism whereby individuals submissively behave as if they were a crowd, eventually acting against their own manifest interest. While those who created the clearly masochistic system laugh all the way to the bank

Episode #75i (Italian) – La Via di Damasco, episode 2. Versione Italiana https://youtu.be/8REi4BTDqOU
Continuazione del video “La Via di Damasco ep 1” – un tentativo di illustrare, con qualche esempio, l’effetto delle “medicine letali e criminalità organizzata” (definizione non mia ma titolo di un libro scritto a proposito da un medico), che fa da sottofondo all’industria della medicina e farmacistica. Insieme a una breve esplorazione sul come e perchè le credenze iniettate dai monopoli dell’informazione si trasformino in fede. Dopodiché ogni discussione diventa inutile, perchè la fede è di per se indiscutibile e chi si permette di polemizzarne, non e’ piu’ un polemista ma un eretico.

Episode #74e (English) – The Road to Damascus, episode 1. English version
“My Road to Damascus” is the first of two episodes examining ‘allopathic medicine’, that is medicine based on drugs. Producing this episode was triggered by my extensive experience as a medical translator and by the review of the book “Deadly Medicines and Organized Crime”, written by a Danish doctor who has spent years documenting what happens behind the proverbial scenes. Which, if known, could possibly help change or at least modify the culture affecting the conception of health and sickness at large.

Episode #74i (Italian) – La Via di Damasco, episode 1. Versione Italiana

“La Via di Damasco” è la versione italiana del primo di due episodi che esaminano la “medicina allopatica”, vale a dire la medicina che si basa su pillole. La produzione del video è stata innescata sia da esperienza personale quale traduttore medico, che dalla lettura del libro “Medicine mortali e criminalità organizzata”, scritto da un medico danese che ha accuratamente documentato quanto accade nel mondo farmaceutico dietro le proverbiali quinte. Fatto che, se noto, potrebbe contribuire a cambiare o almeno modificare la cultura che condiziona il concetto della salute e della malattia in generale.

Episode #73e (English) – Life of Dante #2, English version
The second (of two) videos on the life of Dante Alighieri. His participation in the Battle of Campaldino – how he found himself in Rome as carrying a message for Pope Benedict VIII – his being there when the ‘Neri’ faction took Florence over, which made it impossible for Dante to return. How Florence condemned him to death. His peregrinations to Verona, Padova, Paris, through the domains of the Malaspina family… Plenty of graphics, medieval miniatures and views of Italy, plus a personal family note at the end.

Episode #73i (Italian) – Life of Dante #2, Italian Version
Il secondo di due videos dedicati alla vita di Dante Alighieri. La sua partecipazione alla battaglia di Campaldino – come si trovò a Roma quale ambasciatore presso Benedetto VIII per perorare la causa di Firenze. Dante era a Roma quando la fazione dei ’Neri ‘ prevalse a Firenze, rendendo impossibile per Dante di tornarvi. Le ‘solite’ battaglie con stragi, sangue e vendetta. Come Firenze condannò Dante a morte. La sua peregrinazione a Verona, Padova, Parigi, e in Lunigiana tra i domini della famiglia Malaspina. Con molta grafica, miniature medievali e vedute d’Italia Infine una breve nota personale di famiglia alla fine del video. I videos in versione italiana fanno parte della serie intitolata “Shakespeare nel Salotto”

Episode #72e (English) – Covid and the Three Eras of History
Connecting the End of History, the current (in progress) Sanitary Dictatorship and the (announced) Great Reset to its historical roots. Namely, the division of history in compartmentalized 3 eras, stages or realms. It shows how the pioneer of the idea was an obscure Italian preacher of the 13th century (Joachim of Flora). Underlying the whole phenomenon is what is called a Gnostic Shift, that is, the elimination of the Transcendent as a presence in the life of men.

Episode #72i (Italian) – Covid e la Magia delle Tre Ere
Il video “Covid e la Magia delle Tre Ere” esplora le radici, il come, il quando e il perchè dividere la storia in tre ere e’ procedura antica. Il pioniere fu San Gioacchino da Fiore – antica e familiare procedura tra pensatori, filosofi, storici, politici, portaborse e servitori di vario odore e tendenze. L’ultima ‘triplice’ successione essendo costituita da: Fine della storia – Dittatura Sanitaria – Nuovo Ordine Mondiale. E anche se nessuna spiegazione della storia è perfetta, meglio qualcuna che nessuna. Per di piu’, esplorare il fondo delle cose e’ anche un modo di rendersi liberi (liberi almeno dai vari ministeri della veritá.)

Episode #71-E (English) – Life of Dante, part 1
2021 is the 700th anniversary of the death of Dante Alighieri, the  poetical equivalent of Shakespeare for the Italian language. This first of two projected episodes looks at the Florence of his times, how the city , from a feudal domain became a city-state, plus some references and analogies with the political life of our times.

Episode #71-I (Italian) – Vita di Dante, part 2
Il secondo di due videos dedicati alla vita di Dante Alighieri. La sua partecipazione alla battaglia di Campaldino – come si trovò a Roma quale ambasciatore presso Benedetto VIII per perorare la causa di Firenze. Dante era a Roma quando la fazione dei ’Neri ‘ prevalse a Firenze, rendendo impossibile per Dante di tornarvi. Le ‘solite’ battaglie con stragi, sangue e vendetta. Come Firenze condannò Dante a morte. La sua peregrinazione a Verona, Padova, Parigi, e in Lunigiana tra i domini della famiglia Malaspina. Con molta grafica, miniature medievali e vedute d’Italia Infine una breve nota personale di famiglia alla fine del video.

Episode #70i – Italian version of Episode #70 – Zeitgeist, Covid and the History of Medicine

Episode #70e – Zeitgeist, Covid and the History of Medicine – https://youtu.be/TrjddMfECdg
Showing curious similarities among medical treatments and approaches, from ancient histories to modern Covid. Who coined the term ‘Zeitgeist’, a brief survey of the development of medical ideas and their relevance to the Covid phenomenon.

Episode #69-I – Italian Version of Episode #69 – The 100-year War https://youtu.be/rT2udcQRi9g

Episode #69-E – The 100-year War – https://youtu.be/tk4F5vGZcx0
Examining the 100-year War and the War of the Roses, with occasional related observations by William Shakespeare. With consideration on how and why the 100-yer War marks the end of the Middle Ages and the birth/growth of the centralized European states

Episode #68 – The History of Moglia https://youtu.be/LMQ1hcTnUo0
In the US some people think that the name ‘Moglia’ is associated with the name ‘moglie’, meaning ‘wife’. This is not so, the origin of the name has to do with the town of Moglia, located to the SE of Mantua, or Mantova. This is the story of how and why the town acquired that name and how the history of the Moglia is linked to that of the more famous Gonzaga. Equally, it is an opportunity for an excursion through the history of Italy and of the region of Monferrato (Piedmont) in particular.

Episode #67 – The American Civil War as seen by Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederation https://bit.ly/38vX3PX
Given the recent wave of destruction of monuments and historical symbols, it may be interesting to know or remember the American Civil War as seen through the eyes of Jefferson Davis, the President of the Confederation. Considering how many divergent opinions exist on historical events and subjects, we may remember Leo Tolstoy’s related pronouncement, “”History would be an excellent thing if only it were true.”

Episode #66 – France from 1815 to 1848 https://youtu.be/3jIE4UyHK6Y
It is not generally known or remembered that, after Napoleon I’s demise at Waterloo, in the next 30 years or so, there were three kings, three revolutions, one republic and one empire. This episode deals with the dynamics that rendered all this possible and perhaps inevitable

Episode #65 – History of Italy, part 8 – https://youtu.be/_6sLdsl9DrE
The 8th Episode of the History of Italy during the First Millennium. Exploring the birth of Islam, how and why the Islamic civilization rapidly flourished, with important contributions in science, philosophy, medicine and general culture. Effect on Southern Italy when Sicily became an Emirate. Brief account of its decay.

Episode #64 – History of Italy, part 7  – https://bit.ly/38Rameo
In this episode, the Age of Charlemagne, including tabloid-style details about his private life, as narrated by his biographer Eginard. How Saxony became the seed of today’s Germany, Charlemagne’s fondness for the elephant sent to him by the Khalif of Baghdad and Charlemagne’s favorite food. Why Bavaria is called Bavaria, why, fortunately, we just missed having an ‘Avaria’ to the East of Bavaria…”and much more.”- as all product advertisements never fail to add.

Episode #63 – History of Italy, part 6 – https://bit.ly/2Inbv1B
The Longobards invade Italy and are then removed by the Franks. Emperor Justinian and the Pandectae. How the Pragmatic Sanctions effectively placed the ruling of Italy in the hand of the Pope and Bishops.

Episode #62 – History of Italy, part 5 https://youtu.be/Jq4UU1PLcl4
The Goths’ invasion of Italy, King Theodoric’s war with Byzantium, notes on the life in Byzantium, the Goths are defeated in the war and abandon Italy. The Longobards take over.

Episode #61 – History of Italy, part 4 – https://youtu.be/yPRoa4DG19A
Did anything happen on the day before or after that (agreed-upon) fatal day when the Roman Empire ended in 478 AD? When did the “Middle Ages” really begin, how and why? Episode #4 of the Birth of Italy addresses these and other related questions.

Episode #60 – History of Italy, part 3 – https://bit.ly/2Jl79rA
The Huns and the Vandals in Italy. Official end of  the Western end
of the Constantinian Empire. Romulus Augustulus, last official emperor of the West.

Episode #59 – History of Italy, part 2 – https://youtu.be/rOcVIz4DSF0
The Goths run from the Huns and Alaric sacks Rome – while the chicken-loving Honorius, emperor of the West, finds refuge in Ravenna

Episode #58 – History of Italy, part 1 – https://youtu.be/9_7b1l3mI1A
First Episode of the History of Italy. How the fortunes and  misfortunes of the Chinese empire influenced the last stages of the Roman Empire.

Episode #57History of European Universities  https://bit.ly/2JkEi66
European Universities appeared and were established after the year 1000 AD. The video explores their birth, what was the life of a Medieval University student, and why not everyone was happy about them.

Episode #56 – History of Slavery in Europe during the Middle Ageshttps://youtu.be/7oqNGfxdi3I
After the official end of the Western Roman Empire in 476AD, slavery continued in Europe during the so-called “dark ages.” And it flourished after around 1000 AD, along with technological developments and the growth of capitalism. This  episode (#56) explores the evolution, the management and the changes in European slavery, brought about by shifts in political power and territorial re-configurations.

Episode #55 https://youtu.be/DFUAvxHdFNo
The Shay’s Rebellion
The Shays’ Rebellion, in Massachusetts (1785-1787), greatly influenced the Federalist faction in America and prompted the formulation and the establishment of the American Constitution. An event that confirmed the victory of the “Hamiltonian,”  the federalist unified, centralized vision of America, versus the “Jeffersonian” vision of America, as a constellation of independent states.

Episode #54 https://youtu.be/WZZX31lydsU
Historical Roots of Russian Communism, part 3

Third and last video  on the roots of Russian Communism, and on the life and ideas of important Russian thinkers of the XIXth century. Plus the “one-minute Hegel” for those who, like me, must be in perfect health in order to read Hegel and his philosophy.

Episode #53 https://youtu.be/0M1-BNOBKmY
Historical Roots of Russian Communism, part 2
Exploring the life and the controversies among Westernisers and Slavophiles, plus notes and considerations on the life and influence of Alexander Herzen on Russian political and social thought.

Episode #52 https://youtu.be/TNLg0AJkFNk
Historical Roots of Russian Communism, part 1
Searching for the historical roots of Russian Communism part 1. The 5 main stages of Russian history. Peter the Great as the first Bolshevik

Episode #51 https://youtu.be/4qRrZPji4o8
The Protestant
On Oct 31, 1517 Luther affixed his 95 thesis on the portal of Wittenberg Cathedral. This video explores the antecedents and the characters involved in this momentuous social-religious upeheaval, which split Europe into a North and a South. Plus some tit-bits that make history interesting.

Episode #50   https://youtu.be/fF-9_vfh2fI
History Russian Revolution part 4
After the Feb 17 Revolution, the situation remained unstable. A reformist, bourgeois government seemed likely to remain in power, leaving things the same, apart from the conversion of Russia from a monarchy into a republic. But then the October 1917 second revolution and events changed the course of history

Episode #49  https://youtu.be/DfB_z6633LI
History Russian Revolution part 3
There were two stages in the Russian Revolution of 1917, respectively in February and October. After February many believed that the Revolution had ended…. but it had not. This episode illustrates the dynamics of the February uprising, of the Provisional Government and of the various conflicting factions

Episode #48   https://youtu.be/Kt8dcozr__s
History Russian Revolution part 2
Brief background of the 1917 Revolution and the three key stages of Russian History. How WW1, the army rebelling against the war and the last reigning Romanov Tsar facilitated the Revolution – some curious extracts from the diary of Tsar Nicholas II.

Episode #47  https://youtu.be/O1uiddzQEbM
History Russian Revolution part 1
Opinions on the Russian Revolution reflect personal ideologies, often unconnected with the historical, social and economic background of the actual event. To help prevent overly biased judgments on the 1917 revolution, the episode discusses, among other things, the interpretation of ambiguous terms, (democracy, oligarchy, etc.,) whose very ambiguity enables large discrepancies in the interpretation of history at large. Including the 1917 (probably) most successful social revolution in world history, compared, say, to the English Revolution of 1648 or the French Revolution of 1789.

Episode #46 https://youtu.be/0BQL9nkr_SM
The Destruction of Dresden, part 2
During the night of Feb 14, 1945, two months away from the end of WW2, allied forces destroyed by fire-bombing the beautiful Saxon city of Dresden, killing 135,000 people (almost twice as many as at Hiroshima).Part 2 covers the 3-phase air attack and the techniques developed by the allied air forces to ensure maximum slaughter and the practical annihilation of the city.

Episode #45 https://youtu.be/_V8aV5l5f9k
The Destruction of Dresden, part 1
During the night of Feb 14, 1945, two months away from the end of WW2, allied forces destroyed by fire-bombing the beautiful Saxon city of Dresden, killing 135,000 people (almost twice as many as at Hiroshima). Part 1 explores the background, the logistics and describes the beginning of the slaughter.

Episode EX 1 https://youtu.be/_-O2SFmkAj0
Brief History of Memory and a related Software Application
The cultivation of memory was taught in schools as a separate and independent subject from 500BC to the 1700. The episode briefly traces the history of memory and describes a software application (Mnemonic Frames), that entertains the user and strengthens his mnemonic powers in ways almost incredible until pesonally experimented – capitalising on the (otherwise unfortunately) disregarded power of aesthetic in all forms of education.

Episode #44 https://youtu.be/cm3neU0hHww
The History of the Borgia Family, part 2.
The second and concluding episode on the Borgias focus more on the lives of Pope Alexander VI’s notorious offspring, Cesare Borgia (Valentino) and Lucrezia Borgia. As well as Giulia Farnese, last lover of Alexander VI, and sister of Pope Paul III, who launched the Counterreformation.

Episode #43 https://youtu.be/3U8cekfKuHY
The History of the Borgia Family, part 1.
Pope Alexander VI Borgia and his family are most controversial personalities, who lived in the spring of the Renaissance, along with other kings, rulers and artists who shaped the history of Europe. The first of two episodes explores the background of the Borgias and the episodes that contributed to their fame,or infamy.

Episode #41  https://youtu.be/GQwdJlFCass
The Life and Times of John Brown – an American Hero.
The American Civil War of 1861-1865 had been brewing for a long time. John Brown was hanged in 1859 for his anti-slavery action. A villain at the time, he became a national hero.

Episode #40 https://youtu.be/pTyd3LihJYI
The Bay of Pigs Invasion of 1961. 55 years have elapsed since the failed attempt to overthrow the Cuban government via an American invasion, staged as if it were a spontaneous rebellion of the Cuban people. Many believe that Kennnedy’s reluctance to unleash the whole of the American forces against Cuba was the main reason he was killed.

Episode #39 https://youtu.be/R8oh4-pZkBk
Essence of Marxism, part 4.
Imperialism as the last phase of capitalism, with finance-capital substituting parliamentary democracy

Episode #38 https://youtu.be/AL6IBnX7OiU
Essence of Marxism, part 3.
How capitalism evolves from monopolies into finance-capitalism and inevitable wars. A new and more applicable definition of working class.

Episode #37 https://youtu.be/Y0pcHGCavfY
Essence of Marxism, part 2.
From free competition to monopolies – some of the self-contradictions of capitalism. 

Episode #36  https://youtu.be/JpOw-LuSOYw
Essence of Marxism, part 1. Especially in neo-con circles, Marxism is usually associated with ideas such as the ‘dictatorship of the proletariat’, and similar. That is, a destructive ideology believed or practiced by outcasts of society. Actually Marxism is an original set of tools to analyze society as a continuous evolving & revolving phenomenon, in which economy & ideology are intertwined. This sub-series, within the “Historical Sketches” series is to be viewed as an introduction and familiarization with the actual key concepts of the Marxist Economic Theory.

Episode #35 https://youtu.be/mCyclYjJiYM
Life of Stalin part 5.
The conclusion of the life of an extraordinary character (extraordinary per se and independently of ideological leanings). Includes the effect in the USSR of the explosions of the atomic bomb in Japan, the death of Stalin, the XXth Party Congress, the denunciation of the ‘Cult of Personality’ and the effect that this Congress had on the life and the future of the USSR.

Episode #34 https://youtu.be/BgovqnTMQU0
Life of Stalin part 4. D
edicated to the 1930s, perhaps the most controversial decade of the Soviet Union. This episode discusses briefly the most critical issues, collectivization, emphasis on heavy industry and the Ribbentrop-Molotov pact – inexplicable without realizing the background and the antecedents.

Episode # 33 https://youtu.be/OZvbII7EghQ
Life of Stalin part 3.
Covering the period approximately 1900 to 1924. Stalin’s introduction to socialism, his relentless activity in the Caucasus, the multiple exiles in Northern Russia and Siberia, his flings, his marriages, his sons, in and out of marriage. The combination of circumstances that made the 1917 revolution successful. What Lenin saw in Stalin for the continuation of the revolution.

EPISODE #32 https://youtu.be/VStKhZpt5NY
Life of Stalin part 2. Considerations on Russia when Stalin was born (1882), and Russia’s conditions vis-a-vis Europe – how socialism reached Georgia plus unknown facts about Stalin’s education, exiles, flings and revolutionary activities.

EPISODE #31 http://bit.ly/1m4L1Ul
he Wives of Henry VIII.
The anecdotal history of the six wives and marriages of Henry VIII. Who was beheaded, who survived and why.

EPISODE #30 http://youtu.be/weH3ElNKrAk
Life of Stalin part 1.
Following the birth of Stalin in Gori, Georgia, his parents and the first part of his youth in Gori and Tbilisi

EPISODE #29  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sLrT77jQt7s
History of Libya.
This episode includes two sections, the first is a brief history of Libya, from its origin and definition as a country to the current time. The second is an extended trailer (with English subtitles) of the movie “Maledetta Primavera” (Cursed Spring). The Director filmed the movie in Libya at the time when Ghadafi was assassinated.

EPISODE #28 https://youtu.be/OVNEuVzg-iM
War of the Roses.
The War of the Two Roses (White Yorkist and Red Lancastrian) is considered as the milestone dividing the Middle Ages from the following age of the centralized states. The episode follows the Shakespeaere’s narrative, adding both graphic material and some insight on the actual conditions, characters and culture of the time.

EPISODE #27 https://youtu.be/SOPX7AQgYGQ
and concluding part of the sketch on “Sacco and Vanzetti.”
It follows the vicissitudes of the protagonists and of the anarchism movement in the US, and its blending with the ‘red scare’. Also how the anarchism has evolved into the episodes of individual but empty and counter-productive rebellion

EPISODE #26 https://youtu.be/pNg7r4TdYbg
The names of Sacco and Vanzetti,
– executed on the electric chair in 1927 for a crime they did not commit – are gradually fading into forgotten history. The first part of these two Historical Sketches presents some intriguing background on the protagonists and on what turned them into anarchists. It also attempts to clarify and question some myths surrounding the immigration to the US from Europe in the first part of the XXth century.
EPISODE #25 http://youtu.be/kx1ZfekT6Ao
History of US Slavery in the XIX Century, part 3 of 3
Annexing Texas becomes imperative to ensure the expansion of slavery to the West. After Texas comes the war on Mexico. President Polk wants to annex Mexico too, along with the West of the United States. Next is Cuba (a Bay of Pigs 120 years ago). The abolitionist movement (in the North of the US) begins to assert itself. The episode, and this series of 3 Historical Sketches, ends at the onset of the Civil War (1861-1865)
EPISODE #24 http://youtu.be/5VNuqmgdnNM
History of US Slavery in the XIX Century, part 2 of 3
Slavery becomes an essential ingredient in the economy of the lands acquired with the Louisiana Purchase. Slaves become commodities and collateral. Entrepreneurs are driven to the South in search of quick fortunes, bank credits, unlimited sex and legal rape of slaves.
EPISODE #23 http://youtu.be/K8hzP7o1kAo
History of US Slavery in the XIX Century, part 1 of 3

Slavery saw its greatest expansion in the US during the first half of the XIX Century, following the Louisana Purchase and the invention of the Cotton Gin. The episode describes the drive to expansion and the mass transfer of slaves from the South East to Louisiana and adjacent areas.
Native Americans are ethnically cleansed and removed in mass to Oklahoma.
EPISODE #22 http://youtu.be/7ClQwRXwvfY
History of the Magna Carta
2015 is the 800th anniversary of the Magna Carta, reluctantly signed and quickly disregarde by the famous (or infamous depending on the point of view). The episodes describes the major complicated events and most important characters associated with this famous document.
EPISODE #21 http://youtu.be/xnxSSCoY8SA
The Schism of 1054 AD, part 2 of 2
How a conflict brewing for 600 + years ended in the official Schism of Jul 16, 1054 and in the effective severance between the Churches, after the last Crusade.
EPISODE #20 http://youtu.be/_Kcv1UjxjJ8
The Schism of 1054 AD, part 1 of 2
The Schism between the Eastern and Western Churches, is one of the defining moments in European History. Its consequence are felt and palpable even today
EPISODE #19 https://youtu.be/n0duqF4ENE0
Council of Konstanz,
The Council of Konstanz reduced the number of extant Popes from 3 to 1, whereas before, each of the 3 accused the others of being the Anti-Christ. But the Council was also a kind of Woodstock of the 15th Century, well documented by the chronicles and the beautifully preserved paintings of Ulrich Riechental – some of which are shown in the video.
EPISODE #18 http://youtu.be/lcuHuksVNOE
The War of 1812 between America and England, part 3
Conclusion of the War of 1812 between England and America, including the occupation and burning of Washington in August 1814 and the birth of the American National Anthem, with the original lyrics of the drinking song – and the tune sung in the episode.
EPISODE #17 http://youtu.be/AmZeEvkKPGo
The War of 1812 between America and England, part 2
Second part of the War of 1812 between England and America, covering battles on Lake Erie and Lake Ontario
EPISODE #16 http://youtu.be/urpdaLARf5w
The War of 1812 between America and England, part 1
The first imperialist war with the objective of occupying and annexing Canada. The effort was unsuccessful but several events happened that had important historical consequences
EPISODE #15  http://youtu.be/taBVoEZ0DG8
History of Ukraine, part 6
World War 2, Ukrainization of the Republic, Kruschev, Gorbachev and concluding thoughts on two different world-views
EPISODE #14 http://youtu.be/J43gG_uTaII
History of Ukraine, part 5
From the turmoil of WW1, to the Soviet Republic of Ukraine to the beginning of WW2
EPISODE #13 http://youtu.be/oXrekiNqJqc
History of Ukraine, part 4
Galician Ukraine under Austria and the effects on the nationalist movement prior to WW1 and the October 1917 revolution
Episode #12 http://youtu.be/sszAg2cNy_I
History of Ukraine, part 3
The birth of a Ukrainian national movement in the XIX Century
Episode #11 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gLQnpM61WMg
History of Ukraine, part 2,
From the Union of Brest to the triumph of the Cossacks (1649)
Episode #10. http://youtu.be/IfgD6teXvKg
A brief History of Scotland
, with some emphasis on how and why there has always been a cultural affinity between Scotland and France.
Episode #9. http://youtu.be/pADajoVGel8
History of Ukraine, part 1
Tracing the history of Ukraine to its beginning and, in particular, to the consequences of the Great Schism 0f 1054 AD between the East Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church of Rome.
Episode #8. http://youtu.be/dGUlRfZ5KxQ
The Battle of Bouvines (Jul 1214)

It is not commonly known that the first European World War occurred on July 27, 1214 at Bouvines, near Lille (France). It was the battle between Philip Augustus of France and the emperor Otto IV of Germany. Philip’s victory determined the continued existence of France and its development into a nation. This Historical Sketch describes the events that led to the battle and its outcome
Episode #7. http://youtu.be/IPlKbFz25Jo
Pisa and the Court of the Miracles
Unusual information about the history of PIsa,  Pisa’s Court of Miracles, the Cathedral and the Leaning Tower. Including a recording of  the extraordinary and eerie compounded musical echo, inside the Baptistery (at about 20 min inside the video)
Episode #6.  http://youtu.be/SJTHREUbdvk
Tamerlan, Emperor of Central Asia
While Central Asia may be talked about in the mainstream media, little is spoken about its history, including the golden era of Tamerlan the Great and his achievements in art and architecture.
Episode #5.  http://youtu.be/pekYYQCo-Yc
Brief History of the Gypsies
The Gypsies have at least a 2500 year old history. Thie episode tracks their origin, main tribes, peregrinations and customs from their origin to the present.
Episode #4.  http://youtu.be/slew93oJICc
The Saint that grew Younger with Age
St. Joseph is one of the most popular saints among the Roman Catholics. In art, folklore and literature he was at first depicted as old and decrepit, but through the centuries he has been transformed into a young and vigorous adult male. This episode explores the reasons for this remarkable  transformation.
Episode #3.  http://youtu.be/KszgPT9Eg2Y
Escape from Waterloo, p3
This is the third and last part, covering Napoleon the First’s adventurous flight from Waterloo. Last minute dilemmas on what to do, having reached the French Atlantic Coast. Decision to deliver himself to the English and go into exile to St. Helena, with a small retinue of the faithful.
Episode #2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I7-2YmDqZZQ
Escape from Waterloo, p2
This is the second of three parts, covering Napoleon the First’s rocambolesque flight from Waterloo. From Paris to the French Coast, hoping to escape to America.
Episode #1.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tf-0uV8RCFU
Escape from Waterloo, p1
Introduction to the series. This is the first of three parts, covering Napoleon the First’s rocambolesque flight from Waterloo. Confusion after the battle and travel from Waterloo to Paris

Episode #1 and Introduction to the new Series “The Power of Metabolism”
This is the first episode of a new series dedicated both to Metabolism and the history of Medicine. I may later separate the listings and index of the two series (Historical Sketches and Metabolism). This first episode briefly explains how and why I became interested in this branch of ‘health maintenance’. And I outline a method to determine if your nervous system is more of the ‘passive’ or of the ‘excitable type’ [scientifically whether the para-sympathetic or the sympathetic elements prevail in your nervous system.] A determination that is critical in deciding and selecting the type of diet to follow in general.